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IPC 7
G01L-G01L02702

SECTION G – PHYSICS


G 01MEASURING (counting G06M); TESTING


G 01 LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE (methods or devices for measuring specially adapted for metal-rolling mills B21B 38/00; sensing pressure changes for compensating measurements of other variables or for compensating readings of instruments for variations in pressure, see G01D or other relevant subclasses for the variable measured; weighing G01G; scanning-probe techniques using atomic force microscopy G01N 13/16; converting a pattern of forces into electrical signals G06K 11/00) [4]


Note

 Attention is drawn to the Notes following the title of class G01.


Subclass Index

MEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY 

General methods; apparatus adapted to special purposes 

G01L 1/00, G01L 3/00; G01L 5/00 

MEASURING FLUID PRESSURE 

Methods of measuring 

G01L 7/00, G01L 9/00, G01L 11/00 

Measurements of differential or multiple pressure values 

G01L 13/00, G01L 15/00 

Details of apparatus or accessories 

G01L 19/00 

SPECIAL ADAPTATIONS OF MEASURING APPARATUS 

Measurements of pressure of inflated bodies 

G01L 17/00 

Vacuum gauges 

G01L 21/00 

INDICATORS OF FAST CHANGES, PARTICULARLY IN THE OPERATION OF FLUID-PRESSURE ENGINES 

G01L 23/00 

TESTING OR CALIBRATING 

G01L 25/00, G01L 27/00 



1/

00Measuring force or stress, in general (measuring force due to impact G01L 5/00; measuring fluid pressure G01L 7/00 to G01L 27/00; measuring deformation of bodies as a result of stress by using gauges G01B) [4]

1/

02.by hydraulic or pneumatic means

1/

04.by measuring elastic deformation of gauges, e.g. of springs

1/

06.by measuring the permanent deformation of gauges, e.g. of compressed bodies

1/

08.by the use of counterbalancing forces

1/

10.by measuring variations of frequency of stressed vibrating elements, e.g. of stressed strings (using resistance strain gauges G01L 1/22)

1/

12.by measuring variations in the magnetic properties of materials resulting from the application of stress

1/

14.by measuring variations in capacitance or inductance of electrical elements, e.g. by measuring variations of frequency of electrical oscillators

1/

16.using properties of piezo-electric devices

1/

18.using properties of piezo-resistive materials, i.e. materials of which the ohmic resistance varies according to changes in magnitude or direction of force applied to the material (resistance strain gauges for measuring linear expansion or contraction G01B)

1/

20.by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials or of electrically-conductive fluids (of piezo-resistive materials G01L 1/18); by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. liquid-containing cells wherein an electrical potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress

1/

22..using resistance strain gauges (resistance strain gauges for measuring linear expansion or contraction G01B)

1/

24.by measuring variations of optical properties of material when it is stressed, e.g. by photoelastic stress analysis

1/

25.using wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays, neutrons (G01L 1/24 takes precedence)  [4]

1/

26.Auxiliary measures taken, or devices used, in connection with the measurement of force, e.g. for preventing influence of transverse components of force, for preventing overload


3/

00Measuring torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency, in general

3/

02.Rotary-transmission dynamometers

3/

04..wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft

3/

06...involving mechanical means for indicating

3/

08...involving optical means for indicating

3/

10...involving electric or magnetic means for indicating

3/

12....involving photoelectric means

3/

14..wherein the torque-transmitting element is other than a torsionally-flexible shaft

3/

16.Rotary-absorption dynamometers, e.g. of brake type

3/

18..mechanically actuated

3/

20..fluid actuated

3/

22..electrically or magnetically actuated

3/

24.Devices for determining the value of power, e.g. by measuring and simultaneously multiplying the values of torque and revolutions per unit of time, by multiplying the values of tractive or propulsive force and velocity (measuring velocity per se G01P)

3/

26.Devices for measuring efficiency, i.e. the ratio of power output to power input


5/

00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, e.g. due to impact, work, mechanical power, or torque, adapted for special purposes (measuring pressure of a fluent medium G01L 7/00 to G01L 21/00; measuring rapid changes of pressure in steam, gas, or liquid G01L 23/00)

5/

03.for measuring release force of ski safety bindings

5/

04.for measuring tension in ropes, cables, wires, threads, belts, bands, or like flexible members

5/

06..using mechanical means

5/

08..using fluid means

5/

10..using electric means

5/

12.for measuring axial thrust in a rotary shaft, e.g. of propulsion plants

5/

13.for measuring the tractive or propulsive power of vehicles

5/

14.for measuring the force of explosions; for measuring the energy of projectiles

5/

16.for measuring several components of force

5/

18.for measuring ratios of force

5/

20.for measuring wheel side-thrust (in balancing G01M)

5/

22.for measuring the force applied to control members, e.g. control members of vehicles, triggers

5/

24.for determining value of torque or twisting moment for tightening a nut or other member which is similarly stressed (arrangements in wrenches or screwdrivers B25B 23/14)

5/

26.for determining the characteristic of torque in relation to revolutions per unit of time

5/

28.for testing brakes


Measuring fluid pressure


7/

00Measuring the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by mechanical or fluid pressure-sensitive elements (transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements by electric or magnetic means G01L 9/00; measuring differences of two or more pressure values G01L 13/00; measuring two or more pressure values simultaneously G01L 15/00; measuring tyre pressure or the pressure of other inflated bodies G01L 17/00; vacuum gauges G01L 21/00; hollow bodies deformable or displaceable under internal pressure per se G12B 1/04)

7/

02.in the form of elastically-deformable gauges

7/

04..in the form of flexible, deformable tubes, e.g. Bourdon gauges

7/

06..of the bellows type

7/

08..of the flexible-diaphragm type

7/

10..of the capsule type

7/

12...with exhausted chamber; Aneroid barometers

7/

14....with zero-setting means

7/

16.in the form of pistons

7/

18.using liquid as the pressure-sensitive medium, e.g. liquid-column gauges

7/

20..involving a closed chamber above the liquid level, the chamber being exhausted or housing low-pressure gas; Liquid barometers

7/

22..involving floats, e.g. floating bells

7/

24..involving balances in the form of rings partly filled with liquid


9/

00Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements; Transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements, used to measure the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or fluent solid material, by electric or magnetic means (measuring differences of two or more pressure values G01L 13/00; measuring two or more pressure values simultaneously G01L 15/00; vacuum gauges G01L 21/00)

9/

02.by making use of variations in ohmic resistance, e.g. of potentiometers

9/

04..of resistance strain gauges

9/

06..of piezo-resistive devices

9/

08.by making use of piezo-electric devices

9/

10.by making use of variations in inductance

9/

12.by making use of variations in capacitance

9/

14.involving the displacement of magnets, e.g. electromagnets

9/

16.by making use of variations in the magnetic properties of material resulting from the application of stress

9/

18.by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. liquid-containing cells wherein an electric potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress


11/

00Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by means not provided for in group G01L 7/00 or G01L 9/00

11/

02.by optical means  [6]

11/

04.by acoustic means  [6]

11/

06..Ultrasonic means  [6]


13/

00Devices or apparatus for measuring differences of two or more pressure values

13/

02.using elastically-deformable members or pistons as sensing elements

13/

04.using floats or liquids as sensing elements

13/

06.using electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements


15/

00Devices or apparatus for measuring two or more pressure values simultaneously


17/

00Devices or apparatus for measuring tyre pressure or the pressure in other inflated bodies (specially adapted for mounting on vehicles or tyres B60C 23/00; connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies B60C 29/00)


19/

00Details of, or accessories for, apparatus for measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluent medium insofar as such details or accessories are not special to particular types of pressure gauges

19/

02.Arrangements for preventing, or for compensating for, effects of inclination or acceleration of the measuring device; Zero-setting means (for aneroid barometers G01L 7/14)

19/

04.Means for compensating for effects of changes of temperature

19/

06.Means for preventing overload or deleterious influence of the measured medium on the measuring device or vice versa

19/

08.Means for indicating or recording, e.g. for remote indication

19/

10..mechanical

19/

12..Alarms or signals

19/

14.Housings

19/

16.Dials; Mounting of dials


21/

00Vacuum gauges

21/

02.having a compression chamber in which gas, whose pressure is to be measured, is compressed

21/

04..wherein the chamber is closed by liquid; Vacuum gauges of the McLeod type

21/

06...actuated by rotating or inverting the measuring device

21/

08.by measuring variations in the transmission of acoustic waves through the medium, the pressure of which is to be measured

21/

10.by measuring variations in the heat conductivity of the medium, the pressure of which is to be measured

21/

12..measuring changes in electric resistance of measuring members, e.g. of filaments; Vacuum gauges of the Pirani type

21/

14..using thermocouples

21/

16.by measuring variation of frictional resistance of gases

21/

18..using a pendulum

21/

20..using members oscillating about a vertical axis

21/

22..using resonance effects of a vibrating body; Vacuum gauges of the Klumb type

21/

24..using rotating members; Vacuum gauges of the Langmuir type

21/

26.by making use of radiometer action, i.e. of the pressure caused by the momentum of molecules passing from a hotter to a cooler member; Vacuum gauges of the Knudsen type

21/

28..using torsional rotary measuring members

21/

30.by making use of ionisation effects (tubes therefor H01J 41/02)

21/

32..using electric discharge tubes with thermionic cathodes

21/

34..using electric discharge tubes with cold cathodes

21/

36..using radioactive substances


23/

00Devices or apparatus for measuring or indicating or recording rapid changes, such as oscillations, in the pressure of steam, gas, or liquid; Indicators for determining work or energy of steam, internal-combustion, or other fluid-pressure engines from the condition of the working fluid

23/

02.mechanically indicating or recording and involving loaded or return springs

23/

04.involving means subjected to known counteracting pressure

23/

06.Indicating or recording by optical means

23/

08.operated electrically

23/

10..by pressure-sensitive members of the piezo-electric type

23/

12..by changing capacitance or inductance

23/

14..by electromagnetic elements

23/

16..by photoelectric means

23/

18..by resistance strain gauges

23/

20.combined with planimeters or integrators

23/

22.for detecting or indicating knocks in internal-combustion engines; Units comprising pressure-sensitive members combined with ignitors for firing internal-combustion engines

23/

24.for measuring pressure in inlet or exhaust ducts of internal-combustion engines

23/

26.Details or accessories

23/

28..Cooling means

23/

30..Means for indicating consecutively positions of pistons or cranks of internal-combustion engines in combination with pressure indicators

23/

32..Apparatus specially adapted for recording pressure changes measured by indicators (apparatus for recording steady or quasi-steady pressure G01L 19/08)



25/

00Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring force, torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency  [2]


27/

00Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring fluid pressure  [2]

27/

02.of indicators


  
 

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