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IPC 7
Section F
SECTION F – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING

ENGINES OR PUMPS

Notes

 Guide to the use of this subsection (classes F01 to F04)

 The following notes are meant to assist in the use of this part of the classification scheme.

(1)In this subsection, subclasses or groups designating "engines" or "pumps" cover methods of operating the same, unless otherwise specifically provided for.

(2)In this subsection, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

 "engine" means a device for continuously converting fluid energy into mechanical power. Thus, this term includes, for example, steam piston engines or steam turbines, per se, or internal-combustion piston engines, but it excludes single-stroke devices. "Engine" also includes the fluid-motive portion of a meter unless such portion is particularly adapted for use in a meter;

 "pump" means a device for continuously raising, forcing, compressing, or exhausting fluid by mechanical or other means. Thus, this term includes fans or blowers;

 "machine" means a device which could equally be an engine and a pump, and not a device which is restricted to an engine or one which is restricted to a pump;

 "positive displacement" means the way the energy of a working fluid is transformed into mechanical energy, in which variations of volume created by the working fluid in a working chamber produce equivalent displacements of the mechanical member transmitting the energy, the dynamic effect of the fluid being of minor importance, and vice versa;

 "non-positive displacement" means the way the energy of a working fluid is transformed into mechanical energy, by transformation of the energy of the working fluid into kinetic energy, and vice versa;

 "oscillating-piston machine" means a positive-displacement machine in which a fluid-engaging work-transmitting member oscillates. This definition applies also to engines and pumps;

 "rotary-piston machine" means a positive-displacement machine in which a fluid-engaging work-transmitting member rotates about a fixed axis or about an axis moving along a circular or similar orbit. This definition applies also to engines and pumps;

 "rotary piston" means the work-transmitting member of a rotary-piston machine and may be of any suitable form, e.g., like a toothed gear;

 "cooperating members" means the "oscillating piston" or "rotary piston" and another member, e.g., the working-chamber wall, which assists in the driving or pumping action;

 "movement of the co-operating members" is to be interpreted as relative, so that one of the "co-operating members" may be stationary, even though reference may be made to its rotational axis, or both may move;

 "teeth or tooth equivalents" include lobes, projections or abutments;

 "internal-axis type" means that the rotational axes of the inner and outer co-operating members remain at all times within the outer member, e.g., in a similar manner to that of a pinion meshing with the internal teeth of a ring gear;

 "free piston" means a piston of which the length of stroke is not defined by any member driven thereby;

 "cylinders" means positive-displacement working chambers in general. Thus, this term is not restricted to cylinders of circular cross-section;

 "main shaft" means the shaft which converts reciprocating piston motion into rotary motion or vice versa;

 "plant" means an engine together with such additional apparatus as is necessary to run the engine. For example, a steam engine plant includes a steam engine and means for generating the steam;

 "working fluid" means the driven fluid in a pump and the driving fluid in an engine. The working fluid may be in a gaseous state, i.e., compressible, or liquid. In the former case coexistence of two states is possible;

 "steam" includes condensable vapours in general, and "special vapour" is used when steam is excluded;

 "reaction type" as applied to non-positive-displacement machines or engines means machines or engines in which pressure/velocity transformation takes place wholly or partly in the rotor. Machines or engines with no, or only slight, pressure/velocity transformation in the rotor are called "impulse type".

(3)In this subsection:

 cyclically operating valves, lubricating, gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus, or cooling are classified in subclasses F01L, F01M, F01N, F01P irrespective of their stated application, unless their classifying features are peculiar to their application, in which case they are classified only in the relevant subclass of classes F01 to F04;

 lubricating, gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus, or cooling of machines or engines are classified in subclasses F01M, F01N, F01P except for those peculiar to steam engines which are classified in subclass F01B.

(4)For use of this subsection with a good understanding, it is essential to remember, so far as subclasses F01B, F01C, F01D, F03B, and F04B, F04C, F04D, which form its skeleton, are concerned:

 the principle which resides in their elaboration,

 the classifying characteristics which they call for, and

 their complementarity.

 (i)Principle

 This concerns essentially the subclasses listed above. Other subclasses, notably those of class F02, which cover better-defined matter, are not considered here.

 Each subclass covers fundamentally a genus of apparatus (engine or pump) and by extension covers equally "machines" of the same kind. Two different subjects, one having a more general character than the other, are thus covered by the same subclass.

 Subclasses F01B, F03B, F04B, beyond the two subjects which they cover, have further a character of generality in relation to other subclasses concerning the different species of apparatus in the genus concerned.

 This generality applies as well for the two subjects dealt with, without these always being in relation to the same subclasses.

 Thus, subclass F03B, in its part dealing with "machines", should be considered as being the general class relating to subclasses F04B, F04C, and in its part dealing with "engines" as being general in relation to subclass F03C.

 (ii)Characteristics

 The principal classifying characteristic of the subclass is that of genera of apparatus, of which there are three possible:

 Machines; engines; pumps.

 As stated above, "machines" are always associated with one of the other two genera. These main genera are subdivided according to the general principles of operation of the apparatus:

 Positive displacement; non-positive displacement.

 The positive displacement apparatus are further subdivided according to the ways of putting into effect the principle of operation, that is, to the kind of apparatus:

 Simple reciprocating piston; rotary or oscillating piston; other kind.

 Another classifying characteristic is that of the working fluid, in respect of which three kinds of apparatus are possible, namely:

 Liquid and elastic fluid; elastic fluid; liquid.

 (iii)Complementarity

 This resides in association of pairs of the subclasses listed above, according to the characteristics under consideration in respect of kind of apparatus or working fluid.

 The subclasses concerned with the various principles, characteristics and complementarity are shown in the following table:

      Kind of displacement            Working fluid        Relations

                                                           of generality

      positive                non-                         in respect

                              positive                     of kind of

                                                           displacement

                rotary

      recipro-  or oscil-             liquid and

      cating    lating                elastic    elastic

      piston    piston   other        fluid      fluid   liquid

      MACHINES

      x                  x            x          x            F01B 

                x                     x          x            F01C 

                              x       x          x            F01D 

                              x                          x    F03B 

      x                  x                               x    F04B 

                x                                        x    F04C 

      ENGINES

      x                  x            x          x            F01B 

                x                     x          x            F01C 

                              x       x          x            F01D 

                              x                          x    F03B 

      x         x        x                               x    F03C 

      PUMPS

      x                  x            x          x       x    F04B 

                x                     x          x       x    F04C 

                              x       x          x       x    F04D 

 It is seen from this table that:

 For the same kind of apparatus in a given genus, the characteristic of "working fluid" associates:

 F01B and F04B

 F01C and F04C Machines

 F01D and F03B

 F01B and F03C

 F01C and F03C Engines

 F01D and F03B

 For the same kind of working fluid, the "apparatus" characteristic relates subclases in the same way as considerations of relative generality.

F 01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL (combustion engines F02; machines for liquids F03, F04); ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES

F 02COMBUSTION ENGINES (cyclically operating valves therefor, lubricating, exhausting, or silencing engines F01); HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS

F 03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS (for liquids and elastic fluids F01; positive-displacement machines for liquids F04); WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, OR MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR

F 04POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS (portable fire extinguishers with manually-operated pumps A62C 11/00, with power-driven pumps A62C 25/00; charging or scavenging combustion engines by pumps F02B; engine fuel-injection pumps F02M; ion pumps H01J 41/12; electrodynamic pumps H02K 44/02)

ENGINEERING IN GENERAL

F 15FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL

F 16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS OR UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL

F 17STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS (water supply E03B)

LIGHTING; HEATING

F 21LIGHTING (electric aspects or elements, see section H, e.g. electric light sources H01J, H01K, H05B)

F 22STEAM GENERATION (chemical or physical apparatus for generating gases B01J; chemical generation of gas, e.g. under pressure, Section C; removal of combustion products or residues, e.g. cleaning of the combustion contaminated surfaces of tubes of boilers, F23J; generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity F23R; water heaters not for steam generation F24H, F28; cleaning of internal or external surfaces of heat-transfer conduits, e.g. water tubes of boilers, F28G)

F 23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES

F 24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING (protecting plants by heating in gardens, orchards, or forests A01G 13/06; baking ovens and apparatus A21B; cooking devices other than ranges A47J; forging B21J, B21K; specially adapted for vehicles, see the relevant subclasses of classes B60 to B64; combustion apparatus in general F23; drying F26B; ovens in general F27; electric heating elements or arrangements H05B)

F 25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION OR SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES

F 26DRYING

F 27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS (specially adapted for a purpose covered by a single other class and specifically mentioned in that class, see the class in question, e.g. bakery ovens A21B, glass melting furnaces C03B, coke or gas-making apparatus C10B, C10J, apparatus for cracking hydrocarbons C10G, blast furnaces C21B, converters for making steel C21C, furnaces for heat treatment of metal C21D; furnaces for electroslag or arc remelting of metals C22B 9/00; enamelling ovens C23D; combustion apparatus F23; electric heating H05B) [4]

F 28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL (heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials C09K 5/00; arrangement or mounting of heat-exchangers in air-conditioning, air-humidification or ventilation F24F 13/30)

WEAPONS; BLASTING

F 41WEAPONS

F 42AMMUNITION; BLASTING

  
 

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