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IPC 7
C21D-C21D01100

SECTION C – CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY


C 21METALLURGY OF IRON


C 21 DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING, OR OTHER TREATMENTS (cementation by diffusion processes C23C; surface treatment of metallic material involving at least one process provided for in class C23 and at least one process covered by this subclass C23F 17/00; unidirectional solidification of eutectic materials or unidirectional demixing of eutectoid materials C30B)


Note

 In this subclass, it is desirable to add the indexing codes of subclass C22K, relating to changing the physical characteristics of alloys. The indexing codes should be unlinked.  [6]


Subclass Index

HEAT TREATMENT 

General methods or devices 

C21D 1/00, C21D 11/00 

of cast-iron, of iron alloys 

C21D 5/00, C21D 6/00 

adapted for particular articles 

C21D 9/00 

MECHANICAL TREATMENT 

C21D 7/00 

COMBINED MECHANICAL AND THERMAL TREATMENTS 

C21D 8/00 

OTHER TREATMENTS 

C21D 10/00 

DIFFUSION PROCESSES FOR EXTRACTION OF NON-METALS 

C21D 3/00 



1/

00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching, tempering (furnaces in general F27; electric heating H05B)

1/

02.Hardening articles or materials formed by forging or rolling, with no further heating beyond that required for the formation

1/

04.with simultaneous application of supersonic waves, magnetic or electric fields

1/

06.Surface hardening

1/

08..with flames

1/

09..by direct application of electrical or wave energy; by particle radiation  [3]

1/

10...by electric induction  [3]

1/

18.Hardening (C21D 1/02 takes precedence); Quenching with or without subsequent tempering (quenching devices C21D 1/62)  [3]

1/

19..by interrupted quenching  [3]

1/

20...Isothermal quenching, e.g. bainitic hardening  [3]

1/

22...Martempering  [3]

1/

25..Hardening, combined with annealing between 300 °C and 600 °C, i.e. heat refining ("Vergüten")  [3]

1/

26.Methods of annealing

1/

28..Normalising

1/

30..Stress-relieving

1/

32..Soft annealing, e.g. spheroidising

1/

34.Methods of heating (C21D 1/06 takes precedence)

1/

38..Heating by cathodic discharges

1/

40..Direct resistance heating

1/

42..Induction heating

1/

44..in heat-treatment baths

1/

46...Salt baths

1/

48...Metal baths

1/

50...Oil baths

1/

52..with flames

1/

53..Heating in fluidised beds  [3]

1/

54.Determining when the hardening temperature has been reached by measurement of magnetic or electrical properties

1/

55.Hardenability tests, e.g. end-quench tests (investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties, in general G01N)  [3]

1/

56.characterised by the quenching agents

1/

58..Oils

1/

60..Aqueous agents

1/

607..Molten salts  [3]

1/

613..Gases; Liquefied or solidified normally gaseous material  [3]

1/

62.Quenching devices

1/

63..for bath quenching  [3]

1/

64...with circulating liquids (in general F28D)  [3]

1/

667..for spray quenching  [3]

1/

673..for die quenching  [3]

1/

68.Temporary coatings or embedding materials applied before or during heat treatment

1/

70..while heating or quenching

1/

72..during chemical change of surfaces

1/

74.Methods of treatment in inert gas, controlled atmosphere, vacuum, or pulverulent material (production of gases C01, C10)

1/

76..Adjusting the composition of the atmosphere

1/

767..with forced gas circulation; Reheating thereof  [3]

1/

773..under reduced pressure or vacuum  [3]

1/

78.Combined heat-treatments not provided for above

1/

82.Descaling by thermal stresses (mechanically B21, B23, chemically C23, electrolytically C25F)

1/

84.Controlled slow cooling (cooling-beds for metal rolling B21B 43/00)  [3]


3/

00Diffusion processes for extraction of non-metals; Furnaces therefor (local protective coatings C21D 1/72; furnaces in general F27)

3/

02.Extraction of non-metals

3/

04..Decarburising

3/

06..Extraction of hydrogen

3/

08..Extraction of nitrogen

3/

10.Furnaces therefor


5/

00Heat treatment of cast-iron

5/

02.improving the malleability of grey cast-iron

5/

04.of white cast-iron

5/

06..Malleabilising

5/

08...with oxidation of carbon

5/

10....in gaseous agents

5/

12....in solid agents

5/

14...Graphitising

5/

16....Packing agents


6/

00Heat treatment of ferrous alloys  [2]

Notes

(1)In this group, it is desirable to add the indexing codes relating to aspects of the heat treatment methods. The indexing codes are chosen from groups C21D 1/02 to C21D 1/84, have the same numbers as the classification symbols, but a colon is used instead of the oblique stroke, and should be unlinked. [7]

(2)In this group, it is desirable to add the indexing codes relating to the alloying constituents. The indexing codes are chosen from groups C22C 38/02 to C22C 38/60, have the same numbers as the classification symbols, but a colon is used instead of the oblique stroke, and should be unlinked. [7]

(3)Attention is drawn to Chapter IV of the Guide which sets forth the rules concerning the application and presentation of the different types of indexing code. [7]

6/

02.Hardening by precipitation  [2]

6/

04.Hardening by cooling below 0° C  [2]


7/

00Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation (apparatus for mechanical working of metal B21, B23, B24)

7/

02.by cold working

7/

04..of the surface

7/

06...by shot-peening or the like

7/

08...by burnishing or the like

7/

10..of the whole cross-section, e.g. of concrete reinforcing bars

7/

12...by expanding tubular bodies

7/

13.by hot working


8/

00Modifying the physical properties by deformation combined with, or followed by, heat treatment (hardening articles or materials formed by forging or rolling with no further heating beyond that required for the formation C21D 1/02) [3]

8/

02.during manufacturing of plates or strips (C21D 8/12 takes precedence)  [3]

8/

04..to produce plates or strips for deep-drawing  [3]

8/

06.during manufacturing of rods or wires  [3]

8/

08..for concrete reinforcement  [3]

8/

10.during manufacturing of tubular bodies  [3]

8/

12.during manufacturing of articles with special electromagnetic properties  [3]


9/

00Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching, tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor (furnaces in general F27)

9/

02.for springs

9/

04.for rails (apparatus for heat treatment of railway rails on the spot E01B 31/18)

9/

06..with diminished tendency to become wavy

9/

08.for tubular bodies or pipes

9/

10..shotgun barrels

9/

12..barrels for ordnance

9/

14..wear- or pressure-resistant pipes

9/

16.for explosive shells

9/

18.for knives, scythes, scissors, or like hand cutting tools

9/

20.for blades for skates

9/

22.for drills; for milling cutters; for machine cutting tools

9/

24.for saw blades

9/

26.for needles; for teeth for card-clothing

9/

28.for plain shafts

9/

30.for crankshafts; for camshafts

9/

32.for gear wheels, worm wheels, or the like

9/

34.for tyres; for rims

9/

36.for balls; for rollers

9/

38.for roll bodies

9/

40.for rings; for bearing races

9/

42.for armour plate

9/

44.for equipment for lining mine shafts, e.g. segments, rings, props

9/

46.for sheet metals

9/

48..deep-drawing sheets

9/

50.for welded joints

9/

52.for wires; for strips

9/

54..Furnaces for treating strips or wire

9/

56...Continuous furnaces for strip or wire

9/

567....with heating in fluidised beds  [3]

9/

573....with cooling  [3]

9/

58....with heating by baths

9/

60....with induction heating

9/

62....with direct resistance heating

9/

63....the strip being supported by a cushion of gas  [3]

9/

64...Patenting furnaces

9/

66...Tower-type furnaces

9/

663...Bell-type furnaces  [3]

9/

665....inverted or side-facing  [3]

9/

667....Multi-station furnaces  [3]

9/

67.....adapted for treating the charge in vacuum or special atmosphere  [3]

9/

673....Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to bell-type furnaces  [3]

9/

675....Arrangements of charging or discharging devices  [3]

9/

677....Arrangements of heating devices  [3]

9/

68...Furnace coilers; Hot coilers (cold coilers B21C)

9/

70.Furnaces for ingots, i.e. soaking pits


10/

00Modifying the physical properties by methods other than heat treatment or deformation  [3]


11/

00Process control or regulation for heat treatments (controlling or regulating in general G05) [2]

  
 

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