The 20th century is characterized not only by impressive achievements in nuclear physics and molecular biology and a breakthrough of a man in outer space, but also by the intensive commercial production of new synthetic polymer-based materials which had never existed on the Earth before. The excellent properties of these new materials let them penetrate in all spheres of human life; now they are completely irreplaceable and absolutely necessary for people. However, together with intrinsic outstanding positive qualities, synthetic polymers have a significant disadvantage: unlike many natural materials, they, having worked out their resource and functions, are not quickly decomposed under the influence of the environment aggressive factors as light, heat, atmosphere gases, microorganisms and continue to exist in
the form of a long-living waste, inflicting an irreparable damage to the nature. Numerous cases of a death of rare sea animals, for instance, giant sea turtles which swallow plastic bags floating on the sea surface mixed them up with medusas, their food, are known.